PENCEGAHAN TUBERKULOSIS PARU DALAM KELUARGA: KAJIAN LITERATUR

Sri Ayu Rahayu Paneo

Abstract


Penyakit tuberkulosis adalah penyakit menular yang disebabkan oleh bakteri Mycobaterium Tuberculosis dan ditularkan melalui percikan dahak. Penyakit ini terus mengalami peningkatan di tiap tahunnya dimana merupakan penyumbang kematian di dunia. Penularan penyakit ini semakin berkembang dan mengakibatkan pada peningkatan penularan di lingkungan keluarga dan masyarakat. Keluarga yang sekontak dengan penderita tuberkulosis menjadi populasi yang paling rentan terinfeksi sehingga dibutuhkan berbagai macam upaya pencegahan penularan tuberkulosis. Artikel ini bertujuan untuk menggali bentuk pencegahan tuberkulosis dalam keluarga. Telaah literatur berasal dari artikel yang didapatkan dari Pubmed, ScienceDirect, Wiley, SAGE Publications, Google Scholar dan EBSCOHost sejak tahun 2010-2019. Hasil kajian yang didapatkan ditemukan bahwa bentuk pencegahan yang dapat dilakukan dalam memutus rantai penularan infeksi dalam keluarga yang terdiri dari; memberikan imunisasi pada bayi, pemenuhan nutrisi yang adekuat bagi penderita maupun anggota keluarga, modifikasi lingkungan rumah serta kontrol penderita tuberkulosis agar berobat dengan teratur. Peran keluarga menjadi sangat penting dalam upaya memutus rantai penularan dan peran perawat komunitas yang professional juga dibutuhkan dalam rangka menguatkan aspek layanan perawatan kesehatan untuk penderita tuberkulosis. Kerjasama keluarga dan perawat menjadi hal yang perlu ditingkatkan secara simultan demi kesehatan masyarakat yang optimal.

Keywords


Pencegahan penularan, keperawatan, peran keluarga, pengobatan tuberkulosis

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.33846/sf.v10i4.478

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