Efektivitas Psikoterapi Dalam Mengurangi Distress Klien Skizofrenia Dengan Halusinasi Pendengaran: Literature Review

Fandro Armando Tasijawa

Abstract


Background: Several reviews have been conducted regarding the effectiveness of psychotherapy for schizophrenia and CBT interventions for auditory hallucinations. But it has not reviewed the advantages of psychotherapy to control and reduce distress and symptoms of auditory hallucinations in schizophrenic clients simultaneously. This study aims to reviewed psychotherapy in reducing distress and auditory hallucinatory symptoms. Methods: A systematic research in the PubMed database, CINAHL Ebsco, and Science Direct in May 2019. Studies were included was the randomized controlled trial (RCT) design, which was participants had schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder diagnosis and the intervention should consist of several types of psychotherapy independent or combination intervention. Results: Of a total of 3,288 studies, eleven studies involving 887 patients with schizophrenia met the criteria. Various psychotherapy in this study, six studies discussed CBT related to different results, three studies related to avatar therapy / virtual reality therapy and the rest about relating therapy and COMET (Competitive Memory Training). Most of the instruments in this review used PSYRATS-AHRS. Conclusion: This literature review is based on eleven RCT studies that reveal that there is clinical effectiveness of psychotherapy in reducing distress and auditory hallucinatory symptoms in schizophrenic clients.
Keywords: auditory hallucinations; psychotherapy; schizophrenia

ABSTRAK

Latar belakang: Beberapa review telah dilakukan terkait efektivitas psikoterapi untuk skizofrenia maupun intervensi CBT untuk halusinasi pendengaran. Namun belum mereview keunggulan psikoterapi untuk mengontrol dan mengurangi distress maupun gejala dari halusinasi pendengaran pada klien skizofrenia secara bersamaan. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk meninjau psikoterapi dalam mengurangi distress dan gejala halusinasi pendengaran. Metode: Pencarian sistematis pada database pubmed, CINAHL ebsco dan science direct pada bulan Mei 2019. Studi dimasukkan jika menggunakan desain randomized controlled trial (RCT), peserta memiliki diagnosis skizofrenia atau gangguan skizoafektif dan intervensi harus terdiri dari beberapa jenis psikoterapi, baik intervensi mandiri atau pun kombinasi. Hasil: Dari total 3,288, sebelas studi yang melibatkan 887 pasien dengan skizofrenia memenuhi kriteria. Psikoterapi bervariasi dalam studi ini, enam studi membahas terkait CBT dengan hasil yang berbeda, tiga studi terkait avatar therapy/virtual reality therapy dan sisanya tentang relating therapy serta COMET (competitive memory training). Sebagian besar instrument dalam review ini menggunakan PSYRATS-AHRS. Kesimpulan: Literature review ini didasarkan pada sebelas studi yang mengungkapkan bahwa ada efektivitas psikoterapi secara klinis dalam pengurangan distress dan gejala halusinasi pendengaran pada pasien skizofrenia.
Kata kunci: halusinasi pendengaran; psikoterapi; skizofrenia

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.33846/sf11nk402

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