Latihan Relaksasi Otot Progresif Dalam Mengatasi Respon Fisik dan Psikologis Pasien Bedah: Literature Review

Meta Agil Ciptaan, Ratna Sitorus, Sri Yona

Abstract


Surgery is a stressful experience for the patient. Surgery does not only affect the physical but also psychological impact on patient outcomes after surgery. So far, the psychological responses of perioperative patients is less attention than the physical responses. The Purpose of this study to see the effects of progressive muscle relaxation on the physical and psychological responses of surgical patients. This literature review was conducted from online database such as EBSCHO-host, ScienceDirect, ProQuest, Pubmed, SAGE, Scopus and Wiley Online Library. The articles was published between 2014-2019 finding 10 relevant journals. The results were progressive muscle relaxation’s effects on physical such as improved hemodynamic, cortisol, pain and improved sleep quality. While this relaxation’s effects on psychological responses on surgical patients such as decreased anxiety and depression, and improved self-efficacy and quality of life. Progressive muscle relaxation was effective,relatively inexpensive and had no negative effects. Therefore, progressive muscle relaxation can be used as an effective and efficient non-pharmacological therapy for patients in the perioperative period.
Keywords: surgery; physical; psychological; progressive muscle relaxation

ABSTRAK

Pembedahan merupakan pengalaman yang menimbulkan stres bagi pasien. Tindakan pembedahan tidak hanya mempengaruhi fisik tetapi juga psikologi berdampak pada outcomes pasien pasca operasi. Selama ini respon psikologis pasien perioperatif kurang diperhatikan dibandingkan respon fisiknya. Penelitian ini bertujuan melihat pengaruh relaksasi otot progresif terhadap respon fisik dan psikologis pasien bedah. Literature review ini merupakan penulusuran dari online database seperti EBSCHO-host, ScienceDirect, ProQuest, Pubmed, SAGE, Scopus and Wiley Online Library. Penulusuran artikel yang diterbitkan dari 2014-2019 mendapatkan 10 artikel yang relevan. Hasilnya relaksasi otot progresif efektif mengurangi respon fisik pasien bedah seperti menstabilkan hemodinamik, menurunkan nyeri dan hormon kortisol, serta meningkatkan kualitas tidur. Sedangkan efek relaksasi ini terhadap respon psikologi pasien bedah dapat menurunkan kecemasan dan depresi, meningkatkan self efficacy dan kualitas hidup. Latihan relaksasi otot progresif efektif, relatif tidak mahal dan tidak memiliki efek negatif. Oleh sebab itu, Latihan relaksasi otot progresif dapat digunakan sebagai pendekatan non-farmakologis yang efektif dan efisien terhadap pasien perioperatif.
Kata kunci: bedah; fisik; psikologis; relaksasi otot progresif

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.33846/sf11nk205

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Jurnal Penelitian Kesehatan SUARA FORIKES, Volume 1-6 (2010-2015) tampil di http://suaraforikes.webs.com

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