Faktor Resiko Kejadian Multi Drug Resistant Tuberculosis (MDR TB) di Surakarta, Jawa Tengah

Nita Yunianti Ratnasari

Abstract


Tuberculosis is a disease of global concern. In accordance with the 2030 Sustainable Development Goals, WHO for a reduction in tuberculosis deaths by 90% and a decrease in incidence by 80% in 2030. In 2015 there were 10.4 million new tuberculosis cases or 142 cases / 100,000 population, with 480,000 multidrug resistant cases . It is estimated that more than 55% of Multi-Resistant Tuberculosis (MDR TB) TB patients have not been diagnosed or received good and correct treatment. The design used was a case control study. Data collection was carried out at the Surakarta Center for Community Lung Health (BBKPM) in August to December 2018. Case population was all patients who received OAT resistance in 2016-2018 and proved to be resistant, as well as controlling all patients who experienced OAT resistance from 2016- 2018 and proven sensitive to OAT. Each sample consisted of 34 cases and 34 controls. Data collection techniques were carried out by observing and recording data on TB 01 form and medical records of MDR TB patients from 2016 to 2018. Variables used in this study consisted of special respondents, including age, sex, marital status, education level, occupation, approve treatment, type of financing and distance perception. Total sample in this study were 68 people. The results of the analysis displayed 4 independent variables that proved to be significant as MDR-TB predictors, namely occupation [p = 0.034; OR 1,170 (0,390-3,512)]; marital status [p = 0.033; OR 0.864 (0.299-2.495)]; regularity of taking medication [p = 0.038; OR 2,097 (1,625-2705)] and the distance [p = 0.046; OR 0.316 (0.097-1.030)]. MDR TB incidence still needs related studies related to the causes. Expected amount can be increased as much as possible. Risk factors for MDR TB events are divided into physical factors (occupation, marital status and distance) and psychological factors (regularity of taking medication).
Keywords: risk factors; multi drug resistance; tuberculosis

ABSTRAK

Tuberkulosis merupakan penyakit yang menjadi perhatian global. Sesuai dengan Tujuan Pembangunan Berkelanjutan 2030, WHO menargetkan untuk menurunkan kematian akibat tuberkulosis sebesar 90% dan menurunkan insidens sebesar 80% pada tahun 2030. Pada tahun 2015 terdapat 10,4 juta kasus baru tuberkulosis atau 142 kasus/100.000 populasi, dengan 480.000 kasus multidrug-resistant. Diperkirakan pula lebih dari 55% pasien Multi Drug Resistant Tuberculosis (MDR TB) belum terdiagnosis atau mendapat pengobatan baik dan benar. Desain yang digunakan adalah case control study. Pengambilan data dilakukan di Balai Besar Kesehatan Paru Masyarakat (BBKPM) Surakarta pada bulan Agustus sampai Desember 2018. Populasi kasus adalah semua penderita yang diuji resistensi OAT pada tahun 2016-2018 dan terbukti resisten, sedangkan populasi kontrol adalah semua penderita yang diuji resistensi OAT dari tahun 2016-2018 dan terbukti sensitif terhadap OAT. Adapun jumlah sampel masing-masing terdiri dari 34 kasus dan 34 kontrol. Teknik pengumpulan data dilakukan dengan metode observasi dan pencatatan data form TB 01 serta rekam medis pasien TB MDR mulai tahun 2016 sampai 2018. Adapun variabel yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini terdiri dari karakteristik responden, meliputi usia, jenis kelamin, status marital, tingkat pendidikan, pekerjaan, kepatuhan berobat, jenis pembiayaan serta persepsi jarak. Total sampel dalam penelitian ini sebanyak 68 orang. Hasil analisis menunjukkan terdapat 4 variabel bebas yang terbukti berpengaruh secara signifikan sebagai prediktor MDR-TB yaitu pekerjaan [p= 0,034; OR 1,170 (0,390-3,512)]; status marital [p = 0,033; OR 0,864 (0,299-2,495)]; keteraturan minum obat [p = 0,038; OR 2,097 (1,625-2,705)] dan jarak [p = 0,046; OR 0,316 (0,097-1,030)]. Kejadian MDR TB masih membutuhkan kajian mendalam terkait faktor penyebabnya. Sehingga diharapkan jumlah penderita dapat ditekan semaksimal mungkin. Faktor resiko kejadian MDR TB terbagi menjadi faktor fisik (pekerjaan, status marital dan jarak) serta faktor psikologis (keteraturan minum obat).
Kata kunci: faktor resiko; multi drug resistance; tuberkulosis

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.33846/sf11nk312

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e-ISSN: 2502-7778 ---- p-ISSN 2086-3098

Jurnal Penelitian Kesehatan SUARA FORIKES, Volume 1-6 (2010-2015) tampil di http://suaraforikes.webs.com

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