Prevalensi Dan Analisis Faktor-Faktor Yang Mempengaruhi Terjadinya Drug-Induced Acute Kidney Injury (D-AKI) Pada Pasien Rawat Inap di RSPAD Gatot Soebroto Jakarta

Rangkay Hadiwati


Events related to drug reactions are very difficult to recognize, because they often appear like other diseases and many drug reaction symptoms occur, especially for brief drug exposures. AKI is one of the conditions that affect the structure and function of the kidneys, this condition is characterized by a sudden decrease in kidney function which causes necrosis of the tubules, according to the 2012 Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) guidelines. In Indonesia, kidney disease treatment ranks second the largest financing from BPJS health after heart disease. Analyzing the prevalence of D-AKI and determining the main risk factors and drug data that can affect the increase in serum creatinine levels during hospitalization. The research method used is retrospective observation using a cross sectional design. The sampling location is in the Medical Records section of the Gatot Soebroto Army Hospital. Inpatient data for the period January - December 2021, recorded based on inclusion and exclusion criteria. The sample size was 56 patients who were identified using the Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) criteria and using trigger tools, taking samples with simple random sampling. Ethical approval permission was obtained from the ethics study team at RSPAD Gatot Soebroto and patient information was collected with the permission of the Head of RSPAD Gatot Soebroto. The prevalence of D-AKI in the inpatient room of Gatot Soebroto Hospital is 8.975% - 18.527%. The factors for the occurrence of DAKI in the inpatient unit were comorbid (PR = 8.975, 95% CI: 1.317-61.159 p value = 0.025) and drug interactions (PR = 18.527, 95% CI: 1.727-177.909 p value = 0.011). In general, the most widely used nephrotoxic drugs are combinations of > 3 types of nephrotoxic drugs, diuretic drugs, NSAIDs, cephalosporins, ARBs, ACE inhibitors and chemotherapy drugs. In this study there was a relationship between the use of nephrotoxic drugs and the risk factors experienced by patients in the inpatient room of the Gatot Soebroto Army Hospital, with a p value ≤ 0.05. Where are the factors that are known to significantly influence.

Keywords: Kidney Disease; Drug Acute kidney injury (D-AKI).


Alpern, R. J., Caplan, M., Moe, O. W., Alpern, R. J., Caplan, M., & Moe, O. W. (2013). Seldin and Giebisch’s the Kidney : Physiology and Pathophysiology. Elsevier Science & Technology. docID=1108978

Avent, M. L., Rogers, B. A., Cheng, A. C., & Paterson, D. L. (2011). Current use of aminoglycosides : indications , pharmacokinetics. 41, 441–449.

becker1996.pdf. (n.d.).


BPOM RI. (2012). Pedoman Monioring Efek Samping Obat (MESO) Bagi Tenaga Kesehatan. Direktorat Pengawasan Distribusi Produk Terapetik Dan PKRT Badan Pom RI, 1–35. (n.d.).

Drury, N., & Lewington, A. (2018). Prevention and management of acute kidney injury in the perioperative patient. Surgery (United Kingdom), 36(12), 705–709.

Edition, S. (2009). IHI Global Trigger Tool for Measuring Adverse Events.

Edwards, I. R., & Aronson, J. K. (2000). Adverse drug reactions Adverse drug reactions : definitions , diagnosis , and management. 356, 1255–1259.

Exposure, N. M. (2013). Implementation Manual. 1–29.

Finlay, S., Bray, B., Lewington, A. J., Hunter-rowe, C. T., Banerjee, A., Atkinson, J. M., & Jones, M. C. (2013). Identification of risk factors associated with acute kidney injury in patients admitted to acute medical units. 13(3), 233–238.

Gaggl, M., Pate, V., Stürmer, T., Kshirsagar, A. V, & Layton, J. B. (2020). The comparative risk of acute kidney injury of vancomycin relative to other common antibiotics. Scientific Reports, 1–9.

Goswami, S., Pahwa, N., Vohra, R., & Raju, B. M. (2018). Clinical spectrum of hospital acquired acute kidney injury: A prospective study from Central India. Saudi Journal of Kidney Diseases and Transplantation : An Official Publication of the Saudi Center for Organ Transplantation, Saudi Arabia, 29(4), 946–955.

Herawati, F., Surabaya, U., Umar, F., & Andrajati, R. (2011). Pedoman Interpretasi Data Klinik. May 2016.

If, N. (2018). Avoiding the “ triple whammy ” in primary care : ACE inhibitor / ARB + diuretic + NSAID. April, 1–5.

Injury, K. (2019). Correspondence. 41(9), 1894–1897.

Jonny, J., Hasyim, M., Angelia, V., Jahya, A. N., & Hilman, L. P. (2020). Incidence of acute kidney injury and use of renal replacement therapy in intensive care unit patients in Indonesia. 1–8.

Khan, S., Loi, V., & Rosner, M. H. (2017). Drug-Induced Kidney Injury in the Elderly. Drugs & Aging.

Liabeuf, C. S., Division, C. P., René, A., Amiens, L., Picard, S., Choukroun, G., Masmoudi, K., Liabeuf, S., & Network, N. (2017). PHARMACOEPIDEMIOLOGY The drugs that mostly frequently induce acute kidney injury : a case À noncase study of a pharmacovigilance database. 1341–1349.

Liu, C., Yan, S., Wang, Y., Wang, J., Fu, X., Song, H., Tong, R., Dong, M., Ge, W., Wang, J., Yang, H., Wang, C., Xia, P., Zhao, L., Shen, S., Xie, J., Xu, Y., Ma, P., Li, H., … Yang, L. (2020). Drug-Induced Hospital-Acquired Acute Kidney Injury in China: A Multicenter Cross-Sectional Survey. Kidney Diseases, 1–13.

Liu, T., Oprea, T., Ursu, O., Hasselgren, C., & Altman, R. B. (2016). Estimation of Maximum Recommended Therapeutic Dose. May, 1–10.

Mahadevan, V. (2019). Anatomy of the kidney and ureter. Surgery, 37(7), 359–364.

Makris, K., & Spanou, L. (2016). Acute Kidney Injury : Definition , Pathophysiology and Clinical Phenotypes. 37(2), 85–98.

Manuscript, A., & Definition, C. (2013). NIH Public Access. 64(April 2011), 797–808.

Melyda. (2017). Diagnosis dan Tatalaksana Acute Kidney Injury ( AKI ) pada Syok Septik. Cdk-259, 44(12), 907–911.

Mercado, M. G., & Bremerton, N. H. (2019). Acute Kidney Injury : Diagnosis and Management. 687–694.

Miyahara, T. (1978). Drug-induced renal disorders. Nippon Rinsho. Japanese Journal of Clinical Medicine, Suppl(3), 2320–2321.

Pazhayattil, G. S. (2014). Drug-induced impairment of renal function. 457–468.

Pazhayattil, G. S., & Shirali, A. C. (2014). Drug-induced impairment of renal function. International Journal of Nephrology and Renovascular Disease, 7, 457–468.

Pirmohamed, M., James, S., Meakin, S., Green, C., Scott, A. K., Walley, T. J., Farrar, K., Park, B. K., & Breckenridge, A. M. (2004). Adverse drug reactions as cause of admission to hospital: Prospective analysis of 18 820 patients. British Medical Journal, 329(7456), 15–19.

Prest, M. S. (2003). Reaksi Obat yang Tidak Dikehendaki (pp. 101–117).

Qu, Y., An, F., Luo, Y., Lu, Y., Liu, T., Zhao, W., & Lin, B. (2018). Biomaterials A nephron model for study of drug-induced acute kidney injury and assessment of drug-induced nephrotoxicity. Biomaterials, 155, 41–53.

Report, T. (n.d.). Medication Safety in Polypharmacy.

Rolland, A.-L., Garnier, A.-S., Meunier, K., Drablier, G., & Briet, M. (2021). Drug-Induced Acute Kidney Injury: A Study from the French Medical Administrative and the French National Pharmacovigilance Databases Using Capture-Recapture Method. Journal of Clinical Medicine, 10(2), 168.

Scharfstein, M., & Gaurf. (2013). ADVERSE DRUG REACTION Harbanu. Journal of Chemical Information and Modeling, 53(9), 1689–1699.

Setia, M. S. (2018). Methodology Series Module 3 : Cross-sectional Studies Methodology Series Module 3 : Cross-sectional Studies. May 2016.

Sulanjani, I. A. N., Nila, A., Andini, M. D. W. I., & Halim, M. (n.d.). Dasar-dasar farmakologi 1.

Teixeira, G., Sales, M., & Foresto, R. D. (2020). Drug-induced nephrotoxicity. 66(Suppl 1), 82–90.

Thakare, S., Gandhi, C., Modi, T., Bose, S., Deb, S., Saxena, N., Katyal, A., Patil, A., Patil, S., Pajai, A., Bajpai, D., & Jamale, T. (2021). Safety of Remdesivir in Patients With Acute Kidney Injury or CKD. Kidney International Reports, 6(1), 206–210.

Thomas, N., Rajabzadeh, V., & Hull, S. (2019). Using chronic kidney disease trigger tools for safety and learning : a qualitative evaluation in East London primary care. October, 715–723.

Ui, F. K. M. (2013). Multivariat analisis Uji Statistik Bivariat.

Usia, K., & Depkes, M. (2009). Kategori Usia Menurut WHO dan Departemen Kesehatan :

Valderas, J. M., Sibbald, B., & Salisbury, C. (2009). Defi ning Comorbidity: Implications for Understanding Health and Health Services. 357–363.

Walther, C. P., Podoll, A. S., & Finkel, K. W. (2014). Summary of clinical practice guidelines for acute kidney injury. Hospital Practice (1995), 42(1), 7–14.

Who-umc, T. (n.d.). The use of the WHO-UMC system for standardised case causality assessment. 3, 1–3.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.


Jurnal Penelitian Kesehatan SUARA FORIKES (Journal of Health Research FORIKES VOICE), e-ISSN: 2502-7778, p-ISSN 2086-3098
Volume 1-6 (2010-2015) are available at
+6282132259611 (phone and WhatsApp)